Finally, a placard called the (Tacit., "Ann.", II, 32; XV, 60; XIV, 33; Plut., "Galba", ix; Plaut., "Pseudol.", 13, V, 98).Eventually this wretched locality became a forest of crosses (Loiseleur, Des peines), while the bodies of the victims were the prey of vultures and other rapacious birds (Horace, "Epod.", V, 99, and the scholia of Crusius; Plin., "Hist. It often happened that the condemned man did not die of hunger or thirst, but lingered on the cross for several days (Isid., V, 27; Senec., Epist. To shorten his punishment therefore, and lessen his terrible sufferings, his legs were were sometimes broken ( Cic., XIII Philipp., xii).This custom, exceptional among the Romans, was common with the Jews.In this way it was possible to take down the corpse on the very evening of the execution (Tertullian, "Adv. Among the Romans, on the contrary, the corpse could not be taken down, unless such removal had been specially authorized in the sentence of death.The punishment of the cross was regularly inflicted for such grave crimes as highway robbery and piracy (Petron., lxxii; Flor., III, xix), for public accusation of his master by a slave (, see Capitolin., Pertinax, ix; Herodian, V, ii; Paul., "Sent.", V, xxi, 4), for sedition and tumult (Paul., Fr. "De Pnis", XLVIII, 19, and "Sent.", V, 221; Dion., V, 52; Josephus, "Antiq.", XIII, xxii, and "Bell. dei vind.", ix, "Artemid.", II, xli), exposed to the jibes and insults of the people (Joseph., "Antiq.", XIX, iii; Plaut., "Most.", I, 1, 52; Dion., VII, 69).
It was at Rome, however, that from early republican times the cross was most frequently used as an instrument of punishment, and amid circumstances of great severity and even cruelty.Hüschke, however (Die Multa), does not admit that it was originally a servile punishment.It was inflicted also, as Cicero tells us (XIII Phil., xii; Verr., V, xxvii), on provincials convicted of brigandage.It has a solemn meaning among both Brahmins and Buddhists, though the elder Burnouf ("Le lotus de la bonne loi, traduit du sanscrit", p. It seems to have represented the apparatus used at one time by the fathers of the human race in kindling fire; and for this reason it was the symbol of living flame, of sacred fire, whose mother is Maia, the personification of productive power (Burnouf, La science des religions). 625), taking the Sanskrit word literally, divided it into the particles seems to have been used in a causative sense (Burnouf, Dictionnaire sanscrit-français, 1866). We shall explain below the value and symbolical meaning of this when found on Christian monuments.It is also, according to Milani, a symbol of the sun (Bertrand, , p. Others have seen in it the mystic representation of lightning or of the god of the tempest, and even the emblem of the Aryan pantheon and the primitive Aryan civilization. The swastika sign was very widespread throughout the Orient, the seat of the oldest civilizations. But the swastika is not the only sign of this kind known to antiquity. The statutes of Kings Asurnazirpal and Sansirauman, now in the British Museum, have cruciform jewels about the neck (Layard, Monuments of Nineveh, II, pl. Cruciform earrings were found by Father Delattre in Punic tombs at Carthage.It was particularly the punishment for slaves found guilty of any serious crime.