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Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states.The influence of the Haskalah movement (Jewish Enlightenment) was also evidence.Not all Hasidic factions joined the Agudath Israel, remaining independent such as Machzikei Hadat of Galicia.In 1919, Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld and Yitzchok Yerucham Diskin founded the Edah Ha Chareidis as part of Agudath Israel in then Mandate Palestine.

In 1912, the World Agudath Israel was founded to differentiate itself from the Torah Nationalists Mizrachi and secular Zionist organizations.In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a strictly Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools.His approach was to accept the tools of modern scholarship and apply them in defence of Orthodoxy.Their estimated global population currently numbers 1.5–1.8 million, and, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly.Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world. In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes also called by the derogatory slang words dos (plural dosim), that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious, According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization.Others, such as Hillel Lichtenstein advocated an even more stringent position for orthodoxy.

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